International Journal of Biological Studies <p>The International Journal of Biological Studies (IJBS) is a reputable and open access journal that publishes original and peer-reviewed research in biology. The journal covers various topics, such as molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, ecology and evolution. The journal has a fast and rigorous review process, low publication fees, high visibility and impact, and supports the professional development of the authors. Publishing in IJBS is a great opportunity for researchers and scholars who want to share their findings and contribute to the advancement of biological sciences.</p> CARI Journals Limited en-US International Journal of Biological Studies 2957-7764 <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Gastroprotective and Curative Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Pittosporum Mannii Hook F. (Pittosporaceae) on Some Models of Gastric Ulcer in Rats <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This work assesses the antiulcerogenic and antiulcer properties of the aqueous extract of <em>Pittosporum mannii</em> and shows at what dosage this plant would not be of any danger to the patient.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The aqueous extract of its bark, orally administered at the doses of 35, 75, 150 and 300mg/kg, has been experimented on acute (HCl/EtOH (150mM HCl in 60% ethanol); ligature of the pylorus) and chronic ulcers (acetic acid; 0.05 ml of 30% acetic acid) induced on rats.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The results from these experiments show that: the aqueous extract of the barks of <em>Pittosporum mannii </em>possesses antiulcerogenic properties. At 300mg/kg dose, the extract completely inhibited (100%) the ulcer induced by the mixture HCl/EtOH. For the three patterns of gastric ulcers induction used, the mucus weight did not vary significantly (p&gt;0.05) on the treated animals as compared to the negative control groups. In the group that underwent pylorus ligature, the extract did not induce any significant variation in both the gastric acidity and the gastric volume. However these results do not bring out the exact mechanism of action of the plant extract. Furthermore, the extract neither acts in reinforcing the protection barrier of the gastric mucus membrane nor its antisecretory properties. The nitric oxide proportion of the gastric mucous membrane presents a significant variation (p&lt;0.05) at the dose of 300mg/kg. With regards to these results, we realized that this extract increases the nitric oxide rate of the gastric mucosa which intervenes in the healing process. The aqueous extract of the stem bark of <em>Pittosporum mannii </em>provokes the death of all animals of the groups from a dose of 3g/kg (LD<sub>100</sub>) whereas half of the population of the experimental rats succumbed at the dose of 2.66g/kg (LD50). After two weeks of treatment, the rats that received the extract at the doses of 75, 150 and 300mg/kg presented no significant variation of the hepatic and plasmatic protein levels. The levels of plasma transaminases (AST; 300mg/kg), hepatic ALT (300mg/kg) and plasmatic ALT (150mg/kg) present a significant drop. The stem bark of <em>Pittosporum mannii</em> possess gastroprotective and ulcer-healing effect although at this time it is difficult to explain the exact mechanism involved in these two processes.</p> <p><strong>Unique contribution to theory, policy and practice</strong>: According to the results obtained, it would be important to realise a histological test of the detoxification organs such as the liver, the heart and the kidneys. Moreover, the cytotoxicity test has to be done to determine the effect of the extract at the cellular level before any therapeutic use</p> Bibiane Aimée Wandji Francis Désiré Bomba Tatsinkou Basile Nganmegne Piegang Kenne Benaille Jocelyne Albert Kamanyi Copyright (c) 2023 Bibiane Aimée Wandji, Francis Désiré Bomba Tatsinkou, Basile Nganmegne Piegang, Kenne Benaille Jocelyne, Albert Kamanyi 2023-05-19 2023-05-19 3 1 28 47 10.47941/ijbs.1281 Biochemical investigations of Albino rats orally exposed to Bonny light crude oil and leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>Bonny light crude oil has been used in folkloric medicine in treating different diseases in combination with Medicinal plants. <em>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius </em>has been reported to possess medicinal properties. This study is aimed at determining experimentally if the acclaimed benefits are true.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study investigated the biochemical effect of Bonny light crude oil and <em>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius </em>leaf extract orally administered to albino rats at different concentrations. In this study, albino rats were orally exposed to different concentrations of Bonny light oil (BLCO) and <em>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius </em>leaf extract individually and in combination.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The results after 21days of exposure revealed that BLCO and <em>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius </em>induction at concentrations of 250mg/kgb.wt and 500mg/kgb.wt could induce physiological damage within 21days. This is revealed by the results obtained from the histological analysis of the testes and the detectable heavy metal concentration in the blood samples.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Policy and Practice: </strong>&nbsp;As a result, the induction of this leaf extract and BLCO at concentrations of 250mgf/kgb.wt and 500mg/kgb.wt consecutively for 21days may be injurious to health as revealed by the results from the histological analysis. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of this plant leaf extract and BLCO in folkloric medicine at concentrations similar to the ones used in this research should be avoided.</p> Sam C. Onuoha C. C. Chukwuma Copyright (c) 2023 Onuoha S.C. , Chukwuma C.C 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 3 1 1 16 10.47941/ijbs.1183 The Use of Ethanolic Extract of Sonchus Oleraceus in the Treatment of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride Injection in Rats <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To study the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of <em>Sonchus Oleraceus</em>. The plant is of the family Asteraceas and was used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, tumors and inflammatory diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sixty rats of both sexes were used, divided into 5 groups. The hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride <strong>(CCL<sub>4</sub>)</strong> at dose rate of <strong><em>0.2 mg /kg BW</em></strong>. The plant extract was administered orally at dose rates of <strong><em>200</em></strong><em> and <strong>400</strong> <strong>mg /kg BW</strong>.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> were compared to the standard drug known <strong><em>Silymarin </em></strong>at a dose rate of <strong><em>100 mg/kg BW</em></strong>. The protective effect of ethanolic extract of <em>Sonchus. Oleraceus</em> was found to be better with the high dose <strong><em>(400 mg),</em></strong> hence the level of serum alanine amino transferase <strong>(ALT),</strong> serum Aspartate amino transferase <strong>(AST),</strong> were significantly decreased. Total protein, Albumin, Bilirubin and Alkaline Phosphatase <strong>(ALP)</strong> were also decreased, The Histological appearance of the given <em>Sonchus Oleraceus.</em> ethanolic extract <strong><em>(400mg/kg BW)</em></strong> showed few hepatocytes necrosis that has amorphous eosinophilic cytoplasm and areas of necrosis characterized by disintegration and disappearance of cells in many areas.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> According to the obtained results, it would be important to isolate the active ingredient of the plant used that responsible for the treatment of hepatotoxicity.</p> Tarig H. A. Bilal Sara A. Mohamed Ahmed Hashim Sanusi Mohammad Bello E. A. Hala Samia H. Abdelrahman Copyright (c) 2023 Tarig H. A. Bilal, Sara A. Mohamed, Ahmed Hashim, Sanusi Mohammad Bello, Hala E. A., Samia H. Abdelrahman 2023-06-07 2023-06-07 3 1 47 58 10.47941/ijbs.1302 Anthropometric Study of the Nasal Index of Adult Native of Ikwerre of Rivers State, Nigeria. <p><strong>Background:</strong> The human nose differs in its anatomy and morphology among different ethnic groups. The nasal index is a vital measurement for classifying the ethnic groups and sex of an individual. The study aims at determine the nasal index of adult male and female Ikwerre natives in relation to age and to show its interest in forensic anthropology.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: Three hundred and thirty subjects (160 males and 170 females) aged 20–59 years were recruited for this study. Nasal height and width were measured using a digital Vernier caliper. The nasal index was calculated as nasal width/nasal height ×100.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean nasal index of females aged 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50-59 years were 87.45±0.85, 94.69±1.30, 93.90±1.71, and 93.94±1.39 respectively. The mean nasal index of males aged 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50-59 years were 94.22±0.8, 90.46±1.45, 90.24±1.10, and 99.46±1.68 respectively. The nasal index of overall males and females was 77.22±2.11 and 94.23±0.90 respectively. The higher nasal index was observed in males within the age groups 20–29 and 50–59 years, as compared to the females, who had a higher nasal index within the age groups 30-39 and 40–49 years. The result revealed sexual dimorphism.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed that males in the Ikwerre ethnicity fall within the Mesorrhine nose type while females have the Platyrrhine nose type.&nbsp;</p> G. C Agburum A. U Horsfall P.D Victor P.C Ajie P. E Okpara Reuben, E Reuben C.I. Nkpurukwe B.J. Otto B.O George Copyright (c) 2023 Agburum G. C, Horsfall, A. U, Victor, P.D, Ajie, P.C, Okpara, P. E, Reuben, E, Nkpurukwe, C.I , Otto., B.J. , George, B.O 2023-03-30 2023-03-30 3 1 17 27 10.47941/ijbs.1224