Animal Health Journal https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ <p>The Animal Health Journal is an online journal that publishes high-quality research on animal health topics. It covers veterinary medicine, animal nutrition, animal welfare, and more. The journal has a fast and rigorous peer-review and publication process. The authors can freely share their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution License. The journal is indexed in many databases and has a high impact factor. The journal invites submissions from all over the world and supports interdisciplinary and collaborative research.</p> CARI Journals Limited en-US Animal Health Journal 2788-6328 <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Behavioral Medicine in Companion Animals https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1523 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The main objective of this study was to investigate behavioural medicine interventions on the behaviour and mental health of companion animals.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings revealed that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to behavioral medicine in companion animals. Preliminary empirical review revealed that it is important to consider the unique needs and circumstances of companion animals when designing and implementing behavioral medicine interventions. Factors such as the animal's history, environment, and the presence of underlying medical conditions must be carefully evaluated to tailor interventions effectively. Additionally, the role of human caregivers, including pet owners, trainers, and veterinary professionals, is paramount in the success of these interventions.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: </strong>The Social Learning theory, Cognitive Behavioural theory and the Attachment theory may be used to anchor future studies on behavioral medicine in companion animals. The study recommended for promoting early and comprehensive behavioural assessment, increasing awareness and education for pet owners, expanding access to qualified behavioural professionals, incorporating evidence based approaches, fostering collaboration between veterinary and behavioural professions and emphasizing prevention and early intervention.</p> James Brown Copyright (c) 2023 James Brown https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-11-21 2023-11-21 4 1 25 37 10.47941/ahj.1523 Health Management in Livestock Production in Sub Saharan Countries https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1521 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The general objective of this study was to explore health management in livestock production in Sub Saharan countries.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The findings revealed that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to health management in livestock production in Sub Saharan countries. Preliminary empirical review revealed that the health management of livestock in Sub-Saharan Africa is a complex and multifaceted endeavor, influenced by a range of factors including limited access to veterinary services, inadequate nutrition management, and the effectiveness of disease control measures.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: </strong>The One Health theory, Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Diffusion of Innovations theory may be used to anchor future studies relating to livestock production. The study recommends for enhancing access to veterinary services, promoting knowledge, scaling up vaccination efforts, improving nutrition management, strengthening biosecurity measures, using gender sensitive approaches and investing in disease surveillance and rapid response.</p> Ebube Florence Copyright (c) 2023 Ebube Florence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-11-21 2023-11-21 4 1 1 12 10.47941/ahj.1521 Reproductive Efficiencies and Productive Potentials of Female Nigerian Indigenous Goat Breeds https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1537 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The overall objective of this study was to examine the reproductive and productive abilities of three Nigerian indigenous goat breeds.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The study covered 108 primiparous does and nine bucks from Sahel (SH), Red Sokoto (RS), and West African dwarf (WAD) goat breeds. In different pens, the animals were bred in various combinations: RS x RS, WAD x WAD, SH x SH, RS x SH, RS x WAD, SH x RS, and SH x WAD. WAD x SH, WAD x RS. Estrus synchronization was done using prostaglandins. Mating occurred naturally when animals were on heat. Dams were given special care throughout pregnancy. The study measured dams' weights, litter size, and pre-weaning mortality rates in kids. The total kid crop and sexes were also assessed. We measured dam lactation weight loss, birth weight, and weaning weight. SPSS, ANOVA, and the Turkey statistical test were used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The result showed that there was a significant (P&lt;0.05) difference in the weight of does at kidding. The weight of does at weaning varied significantly (P&lt;0.05). Litter size significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected the birth weight and weaning weight of kids. An increase in litter size per birth resulted in a significant (P&lt;0.05) rise in kid mortality rates. Breed type significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected doe production efficiency and weaning weight ratio. Although WAD x WAD goats had lower birth and weaning weights, hybrid vigour (birth and weaning weights) improved significantly (P&lt;0.05) when cross-bred with SH or RS breeds. When crossed with SH or WAD goat breeds, RS breeds had the greatest positive effect on hybrid vigour (heterosis), followed by SH breeds. Both SH x RS and RS x SH progenies recorded higher hybrid vigour than the other nine bred line progenies.</p> <p><strong>Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: </strong>This study found that Nigerian indigenous goat breeds had great reproductive efficiency and breeding potential if properly managed. Genetic variations observed in the study could improve Kids crop, birth weight, litter size, hybrid vigour, and pre-weaning survivorship due to their broad variety. This study recommends a careful selection and crossbreeding of Nigerian indigenous goat breeds with suitable pedigree in order to increase their productivity.</p> I. Bitrus C Ezema H. J. Makun C. J. Aronu E.S Arinzechukwu T. T. Gilbert A. Chindo W. W Ishaya F.D. Peter Copyright (c) 2023 Bitrus, I. , Ezema, C. , Makun, H. J. , Aronu, C. J. , Arinzechukwu, E.S , Gilbert, T. T. , Chindo, A. , Ishaya, W. W , Peter, F.D. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 4 1 38 53 10.47941/ahj.1537 Genomic Approaches to Disease Resistance in Livestock https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1522 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The main objective of this study was to explore the use of genomics and selective breeding to enhance disease resistance in livestock populations.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The findings revealed that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to genomic approaches to disease resistance in livestock. Preliminary empirical review revealed that genomic approaches to disease resistance in livestock have emerged as powerful tools in the field of animal breeding and management. Over the past few years, research and empirical studies have consistently demonstrated the immense potential of genomics to revolutionize the way we address disease challenges in livestock populations. These approaches have allowed for delving deep into the genetic makeup of animals, identifying specific markers and genetic traits associated with disease resistance. By doing so, we can now make more informed breeding decisions, selecting animals with superior resistance profiles and improving overall herd or flock health.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: </strong>The theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, Quantitative Genetics theory and the Genomic Selection theory may be used to anchor future studies on genomic approaches in disease resistance. The study made the following recommendations: implementing genomic selection programs, promoting collaborative research, focusing on sustainable breeding practices, enhancing biosecurity measure, investing in genomic education and training and monitoring long term impacts.</p> Charles Zubby Copyright (c) 2023 Charles Zubby https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-11-21 2023-11-21 4 1 13 24 10.47941/ahj.1522