https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/issue/feed Animal Health Journal 2024-03-29T02:54:19+03:00 Journal Admin journals@carijournals.org Open Journal Systems <p>The Animal Health Journal is an online journal that publishes high-quality research on animal health topics. It covers veterinary medicine, animal nutrition, animal welfare, and more. The journal has a fast and rigorous peer-review and publication process. The authors can freely share their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution License. The journal is indexed in many databases and has a high impact factor. The journal invites submissions from all over the world and supports interdisciplinary and collaborative research.</p> https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1776 Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Stress and Welfare in Laboratory Animals 2024-03-29T02:07:37+03:00 Sonia Charles journals@carijournals.org <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The general purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on stress and welfare in laboratory animals.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings reveal that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to the effects of environmental enrichment on stress and welfare in laboratory animals. Preliminary empirical review revealed that that enriching their living environments significantly improved their well-being. They found that interventions such as physical, social, cognitive, and sensory enrichment reduced stress levels, promoted natural behaviors, and enhanced cognitive function. Tailoring enrichment programs to specific species' needs and considering factors like environmental complexity and novelty proved crucial. Moreover, these interventions not only benefited animal welfare but also improved research outcomes by reducing stress and enhancing the validity of preclinical studies. Overall, the research underscored the importance of implementing evidence-based enrichment strategies to ensure the ethical treatment of laboratory animals and enhance the reliability of scientific research.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy</strong>: The Biophilia Hypothesis, Optimal Stimulation theory and Stress Inoculation theory may be used to anchor future studies on stress and welfare in laboratory animals. The study made significant contributions to theory, practice, and policy in the field of laboratory animal welfare. It provided valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of environmental enrichment's influence on animal well-being, contributing to existing theoretical frameworks such as the Biophilia Hypothesis, Optimal Stimulation Theory, and Stress Inoculation Theory. Additionally, the study offered practical recommendations for implementing evidence-based enrichment programs tailored to the needs of different animal species. These findings informed policy development by guiding the establishment of standards for enrichment in laboratory animal facilities, enhancing the protection and welfare of laboratory animals across institutional and national levels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Environmental Enrichment, Laboratory Animals, Stress, Welfare, Mechanisms, Biophilia Hypothesis, Optimal Stimulation Theory, Stress Inoculation Theory, Implementation, Standards, Well-Being</em></p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sonia Charles https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1779 Antibiotic Alternatives for Controlling Bacterial Infections in Aquaculture 2024-03-29T02:41:42+03:00 Brian Omolloh journals@carijournals.org <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The general purpose of this study was to investigate antibiotic alternatives for controlling bacterial infections in aquaculture.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings reveal that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to antibiotic alternatives for controlling bacterial infections in aquaculture. Preliminary empirical review revealed that various alternative strategies, including probiotics, phage therapy, herbal extracts, and immunostimulants, showed promise in managing bacterial infections and promoting aquaculture sustainability. It emphasized the importance of adopting a multifaceted approach and conducting further research to optimize the efficacy and scalability of antibiotic alternatives. Additionally, interdisciplinary collaboration was highlighted as essential for driving innovation and facilitating the development of sustainable disease management strategies. Overall, the study underscored the urgency of transitioning towards antibiotic alternatives to mitigate risks, promote environmental sustainability, and ensure long-term seafood production viability.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: </strong>The Systems theory, Social-Ecological Systems theory and Ecological Resilience theory may be used to anchor future studies on antibiotic alternatives for controlling bacterial infections in aquaculture. This study has contributed significantly to theoretical advancements, practical applications, and policy development. By exploring various theoretical frameworks such as systems theory, social-ecological systems theory, and resilience theory, the research provided insights into the complex dynamics of disease management in aquaculture. Recommendations were made to integrate antibiotic alternatives into holistic disease management strategies tailored to specific aquaculture systems and target species. Practical guidelines were proposed for the selection, formulation, and administration of antibiotic alternatives, while policy recommendations emphasized the need for regulatory frameworks that support sustainable aquaculture practices. Overall, the study informed future research directions and policy initiatives aimed at promoting the responsible use of antibiotic alternatives and enhancing the resilience of aquaculture systems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Antibiotic Alternatives, Bacterial Infections, Aquaculture, Disease Management, Systems Theory, Social-Ecological Systems Theory, Resilience Theory, Practical Applications, Regulatory Frameworks, Sustainability, Holistic Management, Research Directions</em></p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Brian Omolloh https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1777 One Health Approaches to Disease Management 2024-03-29T02:21:25+03:00 Jones Dembe journals@carijournals.org <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The general purpose of the study was to explore one health approaches to disease management.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings reveal that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to one health approaches to disease management. Preliminary empirical review revealed that that interdisciplinary collaboration was vital in addressing health challenges at the human-animal-environment interface. Through a comprehensive review of empirical evidence and case studies, the research demonstrated the potential of One Health initiatives to mitigate the burden of infectious diseases, improve health outcomes, and promote sustainable development. Community engagement was highlighted as crucial for identifying health priorities and implementing interventions effectively. Despite challenges such as the need for standardized methodologies and sustainable financing, the study emphasized the importance of continued investment in One Health research and practice to build resilient health systems and promote equity in health outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: </strong>The Complexity theory, Social Ecological model and the Diffusion of Innovations theory may be used to anchor future studies on disease management. The study advocated for interdisciplinary collaboration, complexity theory, and systems thinking to understand health systems better. In practice, these recommendations led to the development and implementation of integrated health interventions, considering the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems. From a policy perspective, they emphasized fostering multi-sectoral collaboration and establishing institutional frameworks to support One Health initiatives. Additionally, the recommendations highlighted the importance of community engagement, investment in research and innovation, and international cooperation to advance One Health agendas and address global health threats. Overall, these recommendations provided valuable guidance for stakeholders in promoting integrated approaches to disease management and improving health outcomes for all.</p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Jones Dembe https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1780 The Immunomodulatory Effects of Herbal Supplements in Poultry 2024-03-29T02:54:19+03:00 Catherine Michael journals@carijournals.org <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The general purpose of the study was to explore the immunomodulatory effects of herbal supplements in poultry.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings reveal that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to immunomodulatory effects of herbal supplements in poultry. Preliminary empirical review revealed that herbal extracts enhanced immune parameters, such as lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, suggesting their potential to improve poultry health and disease resistance. The diverse mechanisms of action of phytochemicals underscored the complexity of herbal supplements' effects on poultry immunity, while considerations such as formulation and environmental factors influenced their efficacy. Overall, while further research is warranted to optimize formulations and deepen our understanding of mechanisms, herbal supplements show considerable promise as alternatives to conventional additives in poultry production, offering holistic and sustainable approaches to enhancing poultry health and welfare.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: </strong>The Systems Biology theory, Ecological Systems theory and Ethnopharmacology theory may be used to anchor future studies on immunomodulatory effects of herbal supplements in poultry. The study provided recommendations that contributed to theory, practice, and policy in poultry production and animal health. The findings advanced theoretical knowledge by elucidating the complex interactions between phytochemicals and the avian immune system. In practice, recommendations supported the incorporation of herbal supplements into poultry diets to promote immune health and disease resistance, benefiting poultry producers, veterinarians, and feed manufacturers. Moreover, policy recommendations advocated for regulatory frameworks supporting the use of herbal supplements and education initiatives aimed at enhancing stakeholder awareness and understanding. Collaboration between academia, industry, and government agencies was recommended to further research and innovation, while international cooperation facilitated knowledge exchange and harmonization of standards.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Immunomodulatory, Herbal Supplements, Poultry, Phytochemicals, Immune Function, Sustainable, Regulation, Collaboration, International Cooperation</em></p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Catherine Michael https://www.carijournals.org/journals/index.php/AHJ/article/view/1778 Impact of Climate Change on Vector-Borne Diseases in Wildlife 2024-03-29T02:30:56+03:00 Kate Nafuna journals@carijournals.org <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This study sought to investigate the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases in wildlife.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings reveal that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to climate change on vector-borne diseases in wildlife. Preliminary empirical review revealed that that environmental shifts, driven by climate change, profoundly influenced the distribution and transmission dynamics of diseases among wildlife populations. Through a comprehensive review of empirical studies, it was found that warmer temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events expanded vector habitats, increasing disease exposure for wildlife. The research emphasized the importance of interdisciplinary approaches and proactive measures, such as habitat restoration and disease surveillance, to mitigate disease risks and promote ecosystem resilience. Overall, the study highlighted the urgent need to address the interconnected challenges of climate change, vector-borne diseases, and wildlife health to safeguard environmental and human well-being.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> The Ecological Niche theory, Disease Ecology theory and One Health theory may be used to anchor future studies on climate change on vector-borne diseases in wildlife. The study provided recommendations that contributed to theory, practice, and policy. From a theoretical perspective, it emphasized the need for interdisciplinary research to understand the complex interactions between climate change, vector populations, and disease transmission. Practically, the study recommended adaptive management strategies, such as habitat restoration and disease surveillance, to mitigate disease risks in wildlife. Policy-wise, it called for integrating climate resilience and biodiversity conservation efforts, along with public education campaigns and international cooperation, to address the transboundary nature of vector-borne disease threats. Overall, these recommendations aimed to build resilience in ecosystems, protect biodiversity, and ensure the health of wildlife populations amidst climate change.</p> 2024-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Kate Nafuna